Feeding Frequency Has Limited Impact On Group-Housed Sows

Kansas State University (KSU) researchers recently concluded that increasing the number of daily feedings did not dramatically impact the performance or welfare of group-housed sows and gilts in gestation.

The National Pork Board-sponsored research project investigated ways to deal with the “boss sow” syndrome that occurs when gestating sows and gilts are housed in groups. Dominant sows consume more feed than desired, often at the expense of other sows in the group.

The KSU research team increased the feeding frequency from two to six times/day and spaced the feedings in an attempt to satisfy the boss sows. Researchers theorized that a more satisfied boss sow would reduce the variation in sow weight gain and injury among penmates.

The experiment included 496 group-housed gilts and sows on a commercial sow farm in northeastern Kansas.

In the study, 208 sows averaging three parities were randomly allotted to treatments consisting of 13 pens/treatment. After weaning, sows were moved to a breeding facility for boar exposure and were housed in crates until estrus was detected.

Sows were inseminated twice. The day after the second service, 24 to 40 sows were randomly allotted by parity, and assigned in groups of eight to 16 × 10-ft. pens. Sows were weighed and backfat was measured at the last rib, 2.5 in. off the midline (P2 position) when allotted to their group, then again as they entered the farrowing house.

Included in the study, 288 replacement gilts were brought to a breeding facility and housed in groups with boar exposure until estrus detection. Gilts were inseminated twice and moved to 16 × 10-ft. pens, with 12 gilts/pen.

Gilts were housed in this facility until Day 42 of gestation, when gilts of similar breeding dates and treatment were combined and moved to another facility with larger pens until farrowing. The 12 replicates/treatment were combined to give six replicates/treatment after Day 42 of gestation. Gilts were weighed and backfat measured at the P2 position at Day-42 allotment and again before farrowing.

All gilts and sows received a grain sorghum-soybean meal gestation diet. Feed drops were set to provide 5.5 lb. of feed/sow/day and 4.5 lb./gilt/day. All feed was dropped onto solid concrete floors.

Feed drops were scheduled twice daily, at 7:00 a.m. and 3:30 p.m., for specific groups. Other groups received six feed drops/day at 7:00 a.m., 7:30 a.m., 8:00 a.m., 3:30 p.m., 4:00 p.m. and 4:30 p.m. Feed drops were set at the beginning of the trial. Adjustments were made if a sow or gilt was removed from the trial.

To accommodate the amount of daily feed needed, sow pens had two feed drops. Gilt pens had three feed drops from Days 0 to 42 and five feed drops/pen from Day 42 to farrowing. An Accu-Drop Feed Dispenser by Automated Production (AP) Systems was used.

Sow and gilt aggressiveness was determined by visually scoring lesions on the total body and vulva. Total body lesions were scored as follows:

#1 — No blemishes to some reddening or calluses;

#2 — Less than 10 scrapes or five small cuts;

#3 — More than 10 scratches or five small cuts;

#4 — Most or the whole area was covered with scratches/wounds with little or no untouched skin.

Similarly, visual scoring of the vulva included:

#1 — No obvious wounds;

#2 — Slight lacerations;

#3 — Severe lacerations observed; and

#4 — A female with severe lacerations and portions of the vulva absent.

Structural integrity for sows and gilts was performed by visual scoring of feet and legs on a similar scoring system ranging from 1 (no lameness in front or rear legs) to 3 (severe structural problems and inability to get up or walk).

Hoof integrity scores were also observed. Lesion scores were recorded before mixing on Day 1, and every 14 days until farrowing.

Vocalization was recorded using an Extech Model 407764 data logging sound level meter. The sound meters were placed near the feed drop and above the feeding area. A directional cone was attached to the microphone to decrease extraneous noise from adjacent pens. Vocalization was not measured in gilts due to the combining of pens and movement to another facility on Day 42.

Researchers found the vocalization was greater in the two-hour period around the morning and afternoon feeding periods for sows fed six times/day vs. sows fed twice daily. As Figures 1 and 2 on page 30 show, vocalization increased with each feeding and returned to baseline values.

Sows fed six times/day had three distinct vocalization peaks during each feeding period, indicating they were more active over the feeding period. Increased vocalizations were interpreted as a negative response.

The researchers concluded feeding frequency did not influence total sow removal or the proportion of sows removed for reproductive failure. Although relatively few sows were removed for structural problems, those that were removed were on the twice/day feeding frequency.

Gilts experienced no influence of feeding frequency on removal from the trial because of reproductive failure or structural problems.

Increasing feeding frequency from two to six times/day had no effect on overall gain, average daily gain and backfat change in the sow group.

Increasing the feeding frequency for the gilts did not affect weight gain from Days 0 to 42 of gestation; however, there was a trend for gilts fed six times/day to have a greater average daily gain. Therefore, gilts gained more weight from Days 0 to 42 compared to gilts fed twice/day. There were no differences in weight gain from Day 42 of gestation until farrowing. Thus, final weight was similar for the two feeding frequencies.

Among sows or gilts there were no differences in number born alive, stillbirths or mummies.

Sow aggressiveness was more pronounced, as determined by visual scores of skin and vulva lesions, when fed twice/day as compared to the sows fed six times/day. Gestating sows fed six times/day experienced less structural problems with feet, legs and hoofs. The researchers noted all scores were low, indicating relatively few structural or aggression problems.

Gilts demonstrated no differences for skin or vulva lesions, or leg and hoof scores during the research period.

The researchers concluded increasing the feeding frequency from two to six times/day does not have a dramatic impact on performance or welfare of group-housed gilts and sows.

Researchers: Jason Schneider; Mike Tokach; Steven Dritz, DVM; Robert Goodband; Jim Nelssen; Joel DeRouchey; Kansas State University. Contact Goodband at (785) 532-1228.

Virginiamycin Improves Phosphorus Utilization In Grow-Finish Pigs

University of Kentucky (UK) researchers recently conducted five experiments to determine if the antibiotic virginiamycin (Stafac) would impact phosphorus utilization in growing-finishing pigs, thus reducing phosphorus excretion in manure.

The feeding of low doses of antibiotics as growth promoters has been a common practice for over half a century. Although the mode of action of antibiotics on growth is primarily attributed to their effects on animal health, they have also been shown to have a positive effect on energy and nitrogen utilization in swine and other animals. Whether antibiotics have an effect on mineral utilization is not known, but some poultry research suggests certain antibiotics may benefit phosphorus utilization.

The first four experiments were conducted with 70 crossbred barrows housed in metabolism crates. The pigs, 115 to 140 lb., were fed at 3% of their body weight, representing 85-90% of ad libitum intake.

Control pigs were fed a basal diet consisting of corn and soybean meal fortified with minerals and vitamins, but no supplemental phosphorus. A second treatment included the basal diet with 10 grams of virginiamycin per ton of feed. All of the phosphorus in the diets was supplied by the corn and soybean meal, thus most of the phosphorus in the diets were in the form of phytate, an organic form of phosphorus that is poorly available to pigs. Five-day balance experiments were conducted with complete, but separate, collection of feces and urine.

Table 1 shows the combined results of the four experiments. The addition of virginiamycin improved phosphorus digestibility. Even though pigs fed virginiamycin consumed more phosphorus, 7.20 g./day vs. 7.01 g./day, the antibiotic resulted in a 5-6% reduction in the amount of phosphorus excreted (4.57 g./day vs. 4.83 g./day).

Phosphorus excretion, expressed as a percent of intake, was reduced from 69% in control pigs to 63% in those fed the antibiotic. This means if the two groups of pigs had consumed the same amount of feed, the reduction in phosphorus excretion would have been approximately 9% in the virginiamycin-fed pigs compared with the controls.

A fifth experiment was conducted in an attempt to explain the reason for the improvement in phosphorus utilization in the virginiamycin-fed pigs.

In this study, 32 crossbred pigs, averaging 64 lb., were fed corn-soy diets with and without virginiamycin at 10 g./ton for 16 weeks to market weight. Samples were taken from the small intestine (ileum) after slaughtering the pigs to assess the bacterial profile. The most interesting effect of virginiamycin was an eight-fold increase in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria in the gut of pigs fed the antibiotic.

The results suggest that the improvement in phosphorus utilization from the feeding of virginiamycin is related to a change in the bacterial profile in the small intestine, including a marked increase in the number of phytate-utilizing microorganisms.

The inclusion of virginiamycin in growing-finishing diets is an additional tool that can be used to improve phosphorus utilization, thus reducing phosphorus excretion in swine manure.

Researchers: Merlin D. Lindemann, Jorge H. Agudelo, Gary L. Cromwell and Melissa C. Newman, University of Kentucky, Lexington. Contact Lindemann at (859) 257-7527.

Flow Agent Could Skew Particle Size Tests

Feed particle size may be underestimated in some laboratory particle size analysis procedures — depending on whether a flow agent is used during the analysis, say Kansas State University and Midwest Laboratory researchers.

According to the American Society of Biological and Agricultural Engineers' standards, particle size analysis can be conducted with or without the use of a flow agent, such as synthetic amorphous precipitated silica. When a flow agent is added to ground grain, it helps move particles through screens. However, when the same analysis procedures are used without a flow agent, different results occur.

After conducting thorough experimental analyses, the researchers say particle size analysis conducted with a flow agent can result in a mean particle size that is approximately 80 microns smaller than analysis conducted without a flow agent.

The standard experimental protocol allows for particle size analysis with or without the use of a flow agent, explains Robert Goodband, KSU swine nutritionist; therefore it is very important that producers ask whether a flow agent was used.

“Particle size analysis costs about $10-15/sample,” Goodband explains. “For every 100 microns over the recommended 700 microns of particle size (analyzed without a flow agent), a producer will lose approximately $0.50/pig.”

For example, a 1,000-micron particle size diet will cost a producer $1.50 in poorer feed/gain. If a flow agent is used in particle size analysis without the producer's knowledge, the actual particle size may be underestimated, and the producer ends up thinking the feed is ground finer than it is.

The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis on 603 samples of ground corn analyzed for particle size at a commercial laboratory. The results of the testing were entered into a spreadsheet that calculated the mean particle size and its standard deviation. A second sample was then mixed with 0.5 g. of synthetic amorphous precipitated silica, and the procedure was repeated. Results of both analyses were compared with a “method of agreement” analysis, a statistical procedure used to compare results of two different analytical procedures.

A comparison was made between samples analyzed with a flow agent, as shown in the “X” axis of Figure 1 on page 32, and without a flow agent, as shown on the “Y” axis.

If both methods were in perfect agreement, all values would land on the straight line running diagonally through the middle of the chart. If the values are consistently distributed on either side of the perfect agreement line, this would indicate that one of the procedures is biased, or consistently different than the other. In this case, all the samples are above this line, indicating there is a bias, and that using a flow agent will result in a particle size value smaller than no flow agent.

Figure 2 on page 32 illustrates the next procedure used to test whether the bias was consistent across different particle sizes. The results indicate the analysis with a flow agent will consistently be 80 microns less than the analysis without using a flow agent.

For example, if the same sample is split and sent to two labs, one using a flow agent and the other not, the value from the lab using the flow agent is 620 microns vs. 700 microns for the lab not using a flow agent.

Figure 3 illustrates a comparison of the particle size standard deviation conducted with or without a flow agent. The figure shows that using a flow agent will produce a greater standard deviation value than without a flow agent. The diagonal line through the center of the chart would represent a perfect comparison between the two procedures.

The researchers believe all existing data reporting the effects of particle size and its standard deviation on growth performance and diet flowability have been conducted without the use of a flow agent. Thus, use of a flow agent in analysis would require some type of conversion when interpreting or comparing results. Because the results between the two procedures differ, the researchers believe the official standards need to be clarified.

Researchers: Robert Goodband; Steven Dritz, DVM; Mike Tokach; Joel DeRouchey; and James Nelssen, Kansas State University; and William Diederich, Midwest Laboratories, Omaha, NE. Contact Goodband at (785) 532-1228.

Effects of DDGS On Grow-Finish Performance

Dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) can lead to reduced average daily gain (ADG) and reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) in grow-finish diets when included at levels grater than 15%, according to Kansas State University (KSU) researchers.

Pork producers need to take a hard look at the tradeoff between the levels, source and quality of DDGS used, as well as the economics involving both feed cost and daily gain, before using the by-products of ethanol production in rations.

KSU researchers conducted three separate experiments to test increasing levels of the same source of DDGS in grow-finish diets. Trials were completed over four years at the same commercial facility.

The first study involved 1,050 pigs in a 28-day study in May 2002. Pigs went on test weighing 104.9 lb. and were fed one of six dietary treatments.

There were seven pens/treatment with 24 to 26 pigs/pen. Experimental diets were corn-soybean meal-based fed in meal form. Diets contained either 0 or 15% DDGS with 0, 3 or 6% added fat.

Overall, there were no interactions between DDGS and fat level. ADG and feed/gain improvements were noted as added fat increased; no difference in growth performance was seen between pigs fed 0 or 15% DDGS (Table 1).

The second experiment included 1,038 pigs with an average initial weight of 102.1 lb. The 56-day study began in August 2005. Pigs were fed diets with either 0, 10, 20 or 30% DDGS from the same ethanol plant as in the first experiment.

Pigs were randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments with 10 replications/treatment. Each pen contained 24-26 pigs. All diets contained 6% added fat and were fed in meal form. Dietary treatments were fed in two phases, with phase 1 from Days 0 to 28, and phase 2 from Days 28 to 56.

The phase 1 and phase 2 diets were formulated to 0.95 and 0.78% true ileal digestible (TID) lysine, respectively. The energy value used for both corn and DDGS was 1.551 kcal/lb. of metabolizable energy (ME). The diet containing 30% DDGS did not need supplemental phosphorus.

Overall, there was a trend for decreased ADG and ADFI as DDGS increased. The greatest reduction occurred in pigs fed greater than 10% DDGS (Table 2).

The third experiment, a 56-day study to evaluate the effects of DDGS on growth performance, included 1,112 pigs with an initial body weight of 110.4 lb. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments, with nine pens/treatment and 25-28 pigs/pen.

Corn-soybean meal-based experimental diets, fed in meal form, contained 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% DDGS with 6% added fat. Dietary treatments were fed in three phases. Phase 1 was fed from 0 to 130 lb., phase 2 from 130 to 180 lb., and phase 3 from 180 to 230 lb. Diets were formulated on a TID amino acid basis with 0.98, 0.83 and 0.73% TID lysine for phases 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The energy value used for both corn and DDGS was 1.551 kcal/lb. of ME.

Pigs fed 20% DDGS had reduced ADG compared to pigs fed either 0 or 10% DDGS (Table 3). Pigs had decreased ADFI with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet. Dietary levels of DDGS above 15% of the diet reduced growth performance in this experiment.

Researchers concluded added fat can be used with confidence to improve growth performance. Producers need to be aware of potential reductions in performance when feeding DDGS, regardless of inclusion level. While considering if DDGS is economical to lower diet cost, producers must accurately monitor close-out information to determine if growth performance is influenced. If growth is reduced, producers need to value DDGS on a margin-over-feed cost basis to account for a reduction in revenue from reduced market weight.

Researchers: Sara Linneen; Mike Tokach; Joel DeRouchey; Steven Dritz, DVM; Robert Goodband; James Nelssen; R.O. Gottlob; and R.G. Main, Kansas State University. Contact DeRouchey at (785) 532-2280.

Table 1. Effects of Virginiamycin on Phosphorus Digested, Retained, and Excreted by Growing-Finishing Pigs
Control Virginiamycin (10 g./ton)
Phosphorus intake, g./day 7.01 7.20
Phosphorus digested, g./day 2.29 2.72
Phosphorus retained, g./day 2.18 2.63
Phosphorus excreted, g./day 4.83 4.57
Phosphorus excreted, % of intake 69 63
Phytate-utilizing bacteria in small intestine, CFU/mg.1 22,400 182,000
1CFU = colony forming units in the ileal digesta.
Table 1. Effects of DDGS with Added Fat on Finishing Pig Performance (Exp. 1)a
Without DDGS With DDGS
Item Added fat, %: 0 3 6 0 3 6
Day 0 to 28
Average Daily Gain (ADG), lb. 1.98 2.12 2.12 2.02 2.03 2.17
Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), lb. 4.68 4.76 4.68 4.79 4.66 4.72
Feed/gain (F/G) 2.37 2.25 2.21 2.38 2.30 2.18
aA total of 1,050 pigs (initially 104.9 lb.) were used in this study with 7 replications per treatment.
Table 2. Effects of Increasing Levels of DDGS on Grower Pig Performance (Exp. 2)a
Item 0 10 20 30
Day 0 to 56
ADG, lb. 1.87 1.89 1.83 1.84
ADFI, lb. 4.28 4.35 4.21 4.18
F/G 2.29 2.30 2.29 2.28
Total Removals 3 10 9 8
aA total of 1,038 pigs (initially 102.1 lb.) were used in this study with 10 replications per treatment.
Table 3. Effects of Increasing Levels of DDGS on Pig Performancea
Item 0 5 10 15 20
Day 0 to 56
ADG, lb. 2.11b 2.08bc 2.10b 2.07bc 2.01c
ADFI, lb. 5.11b 4.93bc 5.02bc 4.90c 4.85c
F/G 2.42b 2.37c 2.38bc 2.37c 2.41b
aA total of 1,112 pigs (initially 110.4 lb.) with 25 to 28 pigs/pen using 45 pens provided 9 replications/treatment.
bcdMeans within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05).

Year in Review

As this year draws to a close, how did your New Year's resolutions and expectations for 2006 pan out?

The annual ritual of sorting through free calendars, deciding which will grace your office or kitchen wall in 2007, offers the perfect opportunity to reflect on the past 12 months.

This can be a helpful exercise when setting new goals. Here's my take on the past and coming year:

The strength of the hog market was certainly a pleasant and welcomed occurrence. Twelve more months of black ink is a good thing; 2007 will be leaner.

Higher feed costs will send you searching for alternative feed sources and better buying strategies. Squeezing every bit of efficiency from your production system will serve as a high challenge next year.

As the corn market bobs around the $3.50/bu. mark (depending where you live), pork producers are feeling uneasy. For each dollar added to the price of corn, the cost to produce a newly weaned pig jumps about $2; the cost of finishing a market hog climbs nearly $12. If you're pushing pigs to the 300-lb. market weight some packers prefer, those later, less-efficient pounds in the finishing period will be a break-even proposition, at best.

A $3-plus-corn market may be the new norm, and it will change many of the economic and production targets for the latter half of this decade, at least. Redoubling efforts to maximize the nutrient value of every pound of feed will be a much higher priority.

Ethanol Fever

Ethanolmania is a runaway train. We saw it coming, but misjudged its speed.

With new ethanol plants coming on line — and more projected — the by-products of this process offer real challenges and some opportunities to pork producers. Nutritionists are still sorting through distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS) nutrient values and quality issues, while livestock producers clamor to get dibs on this by-product.

Some pork production systems will be able to take advantage of this alternative protein/lysine source, but the cost of drying these by-products, 20-30% of the energy utilized in an ethanol plant, could drive plants to become more efficient through fractionation or burning DDGS to reduce their own energy needs.

On balance, feeding DDGS levels much higher than 10% in swine finishing rations slows gains and reduces feed efficiencies — and that messes up finisher throughputs. Marketing DDGS-fed pigs at lighter weights is an option. The upside is that it would take some pounds of pork out of the marketplace.

I still question whether the ethanol-from-corn phenomenon is sustainable. Corn was the convenient and politically correct crop to move toward greater energy independence, but I still think there are better alternatives in this revolution. Apparently, the government thinks so too, because federal monies are being poured into examining many other renewable energy alternatives.

I suspect the writers of a new farm bill will take a long, hard look at federal support programs. There will be plenty of political posturing, but I'd expect deficiency payments and non-productive, set-aside acres (environmental advantages acknowledged) would be scrutinized very closely.

If we were serious about energy self-sufficiency, the option of growing and harvesting cellulostic materials (switchgrass, tree pulp) on these acres would make a lot of sense. Doing so would accomplish many of the same goals — protecting erosion-sensitive lands, providing wildlife habitat, generating a crop that can be converted to fuel — all the while reclaiming some of the cost of the program.

When ethanol production shifts to cellulose (note I didn't say “if”), corn producers could be scrambling to regain their “real” and most dependable market — livestock production.

We're in relatively new territory here, and it will take a while for the marketplace to sort out the best, most economical methods of producing ethanol.

The Circovirus Circus

Then came circovirus (porcine circovirus-associated disease, or PCVAD). This dreaded disease has edged out porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for the “most baffling, most dreaded” swine disease title.

A year ago, concerns were focused on keeping the virus from creeping across the U.S.-Canadian eastern borders. The swiftness and breadth of circovirus spread has everyone grasping for answers, waiting not so patiently for vaccines that apparently work, but still aren't readily available.

All The Best

Every year brings new challenges and opportunities. When you flip to Jan. 1 on that new calendar, count your blessings for being able to live and work in a free society where food is plentiful, and where the pursuit of goals and dreams is encouraged.

Best wishes for a wonderful Christmas season and all good wishes for the New Year — whatever it brings.

Definition Phase of Six Sigma

Definition Phase of Six Sigma

As part of our continuing discussion of Six Sigma and how it is applied, we will use this space to discuss the “define” phase—the first part of Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control phases.

Six Sigma is a highly structured program developed by Motorola and used to improve quality. Quality improvements are achieved through focused projects. And project teams are used to find improved methods/practices. The success of Six Sigma projects is dependent both on the project selection and the project team.

Successful projects are definable. That is to say, the problem can be described objectively, with numeric measurement. If, for example, a nursery manager is complaining that weaned pig quality has slipped, then the definition phase of Six Sigma requires that “quality” be translated into measurable terms. These measurable terms are also referred to as “CTQs” or Critical-to-Quality (points).

As well, for successful projects, the performance gap should be identified. The performance gap is the difference between the current situation and the desired situation. For example, if the employee turnover rate is currently 50% annually and the desire is an employee turnover rate of 30%, then the performance gap is the 20% annual difference.

If the current average wean age on pig deliveries is 15 days and the desired average wean age is 17 days, then the performance gap is two days of lactation length. A cost of the “current” state compared to the “desired” state should also be estimated. This is used to help determine which projects to pursue.

To find a solution to a problem, it is important to define a problem in terms of suppliers, inputs, processes, outputs and customers (SIPOC). Figure 1 shows a sample SIPOC model for a weaning process.

As part of the definition phase, one must also identify the team to be used to address the problem. For larger organizations, formal teams with trained members are used. For smaller organizations, external consultants can be brought in to help when necessary.

The core structure of a team contains four types of roles: The first, the “Champion,” is the person who oversees the project and makes sure that the necessary resources are available. The second, the “Master Black Belt,” acts as a coach who draws ideas and potential solutions from members and helps with experiments designed to identify the best solutions. For smaller organizations, a consultant may fill this role. The final roles are the “Green Belts” (first timers) and “Black Belts” (members having completed a previous Six Sigma project). These team members have intimate knowledge of the problem and processes—their daily work is in the problem area.

Because of its highly structured nature, Six Sigma comes with its own nomenclature. If we look beyond the words, Champions, Belts, etc., we find some key concepts that contribute to Six Sigma’s success. Namely, projects are supported from the top. And not only do they receive support from farm ownership, they utilize the expertise within the farm/organization to find farm/organization-specific solutions. Six Sigma produces tailored solutions for problems that occur under a system’s unique set of conditions.

In the coming weeks, we will continue our discussion of Six Sigma from the perspectives of Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control.

By Stephanie Rutten, DVM
University of Minnesota

Editor’s Note: For all your agricultural news, markets and commentaries, go to

Livestock Identification Plan to Remain Voluntary

After months of wrangling, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has announced that the national livestock identification (ID) program will stay permanently as a voluntary program.

Agriculture Undersecretary Bruce Knight says all of the debate over whether ID will become a mandatory program has only weakened efforts to meet self-imposed deadlines set by USDA.

The effort to eventually be able to track any animal to its source within 48 hours in case of a disease outbreak is on track, he assures.

The first program deadline is January 2007, when USDA is trying to get 25% of all livestock-producing premises registered in databases that the government could access during a disease outbreak.

To date, about 332,000 premises out of 1.4 million have been registered, meaning about 24% of sites have premises registered, nearly meeting the January goal.

To help promulgate a voluntary National Animal Identification System (NAIS), USDA has completed a Draft User Guide for NAIS and has requested comments.

The user guide provides valuable information on how producers can participate in the voluntary NAIS, the benefits of participation and how the system is being implemented. Comments are being accepted through Jan. 22, 2007.

Submit comments by e-mail to; please include “NAIS Draft User Guide” in the subject line. Mail comments to: NAIS Program Staff, Attn: NAIS Draft User Guide, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Unit 200, 4700 River Rd., Riverdale, MD 20737.

New Graduate Program Announced

The University of Illinois has joined forces with a leading Illinois swine management business to create a new master’s degree at the College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences.

The degree – The Maschhoffs Inc.-sponsored Master of Science in Animal Sciences-Swine Production Management – is designed for high-caliber students with a bachelors of science degree in animal sciences or an associated discipline.

“This program is aimed at students planning a career in production management within the swine industry,” states Michael Ellis, a professor in the Department of Animal Sciences and head of the new degree program. “In the future, these individuals will need an increasingly broader range of technical and business management skills and practical experience if they are to be successful.

“Our program will combine the academic rigors of a master’s degree at the university with extensive practical experience and involvement in applied research studies carried out within The Maschhoffs, Inc. (organization)”

During the past decade, The Maschhoffs, Inc., headquartered at Carlyle, IL, has partnered with the university on numerous progressive swine research projects, ranging from nutrition to health to transportation and engineering.

“This program gives students a unique experience,” says Bradley Wolter, who received a PhD degree from the University of Illinois in animal sciences, and serves as The Maschhoff’s director of production technology. “In return, our company gets the opportunity to work with the bright minds who will become tomorrow’s swine industry leaders,” he adds.

Students will spend three semesters in class, involved in a wide range of applied swine research. During the final semester of the program, students will work within The Maschhoffs system on an applied research project, which will form the basis of the thesis component of their degree.

Applications for the program, which begins in the fall semester of 2007, should be submitted by Jan. 31, 2007. For further information, contact Ellis at 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801.

New Pork Industry Handbook

Providing relevant information on all aspects of raising hogs for many years, the Pork Industry Handbook has recently been updated, repackaged and made available in a variety of formats.

The new 2007 Pork Industry Handbook is available in hard copy and on DVD from Purdue University, explains Iowa Pork Industry Center Director John Mabry. Cost for the book is $90; the DVD is $45 plus shipping and handling and the combination package is $115 plus shipping. Learn more about these versions and download an order form from the Purdue University Extension Web site at

The publication’s more than 180 fact sheets are also available in electronic form on the Pork Information Gateway Web site at

Livestock Facilities Act Marks Anniversary with Workshops

The Certified Livestock Manager Training (CLMT) program will mark the 10th anniversary of the Illinois Livestock Management Facilities Act with a series of workshops.

The workshops that run from December through March will help producers comply with the act and meet environmental regulations.

“The act requires any livestock facility that has more than 300 animal units to have someone certified in manure-handling procedures,” says Ted Funk, University of Illinois agricultural engineer and creator of the CLMT workshops. “Also, that certification has to be renewed every three years. So we want to offer them information that’s different from what they heard three years ago.”

This year’s topics include:

  • Details of concrete construction. “The Illinois Department of Agriculture tells us they’re finding some construction problems out there during the required inspections,” says Funk. “So we’re going to show producers how to build floors, feedlots and tanks – structures that are a good-quality product and also meet state regulations.”
  • Value of manure as fertilizer. “Manure is a viable alternative to fertilizer,” says Funk, “so we’re going to talk about the nutrient value in manure and how to market it to your crop-producing neighbors.”
  • Manure sampling. “We’re working with laboratories to get their advice on manure sampling and what they’d recommend that producers changes,” he points out. “We’ll also talk about the quality of the samples that are coming in. Are producers doing a good job of getting representative samples and are they sampling enough?”

To receive manure certification, producers with more than 300 animal units must attend an approved training session or complete a written examination from the Illinois Department of Agriculture. Producers with more than 1,000 animal units must do both.

Each year species-specific workshops are offered. However, small producers or producers of any species can attend any workshop to be certified or learn more about environmental regulations.

Swine-specific workshops are scheduled for Dec. 19 at Newton, IL (618-783-2521); Jan. 22 at Mt. Carroll, IL (815-244-9444); Feb. 2 at Galesburg, IL (309-342-5108); and Feb. 9 at Nashville, IL (618-327-8881).

A workshop brochure is available at For questions, contact Randy Fonner, University of Illinois Extension specialist and coordinator of the workshops at (217) 333-2611 or

Pork Leads Tonnage Growth

Pork has outpaced the competition in tonnage growth compared to performance a year ago, according to FreshLook, a retail scanner data report analysis for the first six months of 2006.

“Retailers have been very active in featuring pork, and they’re focusing on more than the traditional bone-in pork chop,” says Karen Boillot, director of retail marketing for the National Pork Board. “They’re also promoting boneless pork products, tenderloins and more.”

The data show that fresh pork tonnage is up 6% vs. a year ago, compared to beef (up 3%) and chicken (up 4%). Pork has also topped chicken in dollar sales growth.

“The Pork Checkoff has worked very hard to become a valued partner with retailers across the country, and efforts ranging from our ‘Don’t be Blah’ kick off to our seasonal promotions are making a difference,” says Boillot.

Report Provides Vision of Potential Growth

There is excellent potential for growth of Iowa’s animal food systems, resulting in more jobs and higher cash receipts, says a new report from Iowa State University (ISU).

“Development through animal agriculture is a logical and exciting avenue to grow Iowa’s rural economies,” says Wendy Wintersteen, dean of ISU’s College of Agriculture. “Our animal agriculture industry is favorably located geographically, in an area of competitive advantage for feed ingredients and has cropping systems that are compatible for manure utilization.”

ISU’s Department of Animal Science conducted a year-long study evaluating the current status of animal agriculture and growth opportunities.

Iowa has the land resources to expand livestock and poultry production, says Maynard Hogberg, department chair and professor of animal science.

“Think about a diversified crop-livestock farm that feeds all the crops grown on the farm and sells only livestock or poultry products,” Hogberg says. “More labor is needed to care for the animals and value is added to the crops that are converted to higher value animal proteins. The farm would purchase less commercial fertilizer because the manure nutrients would meet most of the crop needs.”

ISU’s Center for Agricultural and Rural Development estimated the number of hog or cattle finishing spaces needed to fertilize crops per section of cropland. Based on sound agronomic practices and environmental regulations, researchers suggested if Iowa’s 36,000 sections of cropland were planted in a corn-corn-soybean rotation under a phosphorus standard, it would require all the hogs and 80% of the fed cattle produced in the United States to generate adequate nutrients for the crops.

Iowa produces about 26% of the nation’s hogs and 6% of fed cattle inventories. “Clearly, Iowa has the land resources to expand animal agriculture,” says Hogberg. “Issues of concentration and environmental impacts exist, and those will continue to be addressed.”

In the report, John Lawrence, professor of economics and director of the Iowa Beef Center, studied growth potential for animal species.

“Cash receipts from animal agriculture in 2005 were nearly $7.9 billion in Iowa and represented 53% of all agriculture receipts,” he says. “The targeted growth outlined in this report would lead to an increase of $2 billion in cash receipts from animal agriculture over the next decade.”

The report suggests a 15% increase in Iowa’s swine breeding herd, a 10% rise in finishing pigs, an increase of 50% in fed cattle marketings and a 10% growth in beef cowherds.

Lawrence says the impact of these potential increases on jobs and economic activity is impressive. “The growth of Iowa’s animal agriculture offers traditional partners an increased demand for Iowa grains, supplies, capital, energy, labor and consumables. It also has the potential to add jobs in other areas. Nearly 10,000 new jobs, both direct and indirect, would be created if the growth projections outlined in this report were reached. Plus, cash receipts would be $9.075 billion and total economic activity would be $21.2 billion.”

The report can be accessed at or by calling (515) 294-2160.