When using a syringe with needle attached follow these five steps1 Fill the syringe with proper dosage or preset dosage on adjustable syringe2 Make sure no air bubbles are present in the syringe Tap syringe barrel to make bubbles rise to the top and squeeze syringe trigger or plunger slightly to remove air bubbles3 Restrain or confine animals to ensure accurate placement of the injection4 Locate the injection site making sure the site is clean 5 Quickly and firmly insert needle into

Know the risks, how to prevent needle-stick injuries

UMASH says research shows that more than 80% of farm workers and 73% of swine veterinarians working in animal agriculture have accidentally stuck themselves with a needle.

By Tracey Erickson, South Dakota State University
Within agricultural production a good share of livestock producers perform routine veterinary work themselves. This includes administering vaccinations or treatments for common disease or sickness. A result of performing this type of work there is increased risk for injury due to a needle-stick injury. According to the Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, needle-stick injury research shows that more than 80% of farm workers and 73% of swine veterinarians working in animal agriculture have accidentally stuck themselves with a needle.

Needle-stick injuries: Risks and prevention
Producers need to educate themselves and their employees about the proper protocols when administering injections to livestock to prevent a needle-stick from occurring.

First, we need to ask, “Why are needle-stick injuries a big deal?” Some of the more common injuries that can occur are skin infections, allergic reactions and deep tissue wounds that would require surgery. However, some less common but more serious injuries can occur and possibly even cause death, including miscarriages due to hormone products, a serious cardiovascular event, suppression or coma, systemic infections and allergic reactions to antibiotics.

Employers
As livestock and employee managers we need to do and provide the following.

• Train and retrain employees regularly about safe needle handling, safe injection procedures and the types of medications used.
• Provide safe animal handling equipment and ensure proper staffing when handling livestock.
• Provide readily accessible sharps container for safe needle disposal. You may need to show and explain what the sharps container is and why it is important.
• Provide needles/syringes with protective devices such as retractable needles or hinged syringe caps.
• Remind employees to use caution when using products of concern.
• Pregnant employees should not inject hormones.
• Encourage employees to practice best management practices when handling livestock, staying calm and not rushing.
• Encourage employees to report injuries.
• If a needle stick has occurs, the employees should contact a healthcare provider.

Employees
Employees and those administering any medication should practice the following.

• Slow down — don’t rush injections.
• Restrain animals properly using the appropriate livestock handling equipment and technique.
• Do not put needle caps in your mouth.
• Discard all bent needles and do not reuse them or straighten them.
• Do not put needles or syringes in your pockets.
• Use an approved and properly labelled sharps container.
• Do not remove needles from sharps containers.
• Do not recap needles.
• Report all needle stick injuries to management.
• Contact your health care provider if you have a needle stick injury.

Product safety
Livestock producers need to be aware of various products that are high-risk and cause the most concern when a needle-stick injury occurs. They are Tilmicosin (Micotil), sedatives (e.g. Xylazine), oil-based adjuvants, Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, modified live vaccines (e.g. erysipelas vaccine, Johne’s vaccine), hormones — especially if handlers may be pregnant, and any antibiotic which may cause an allergic reaction.

Training materials
If you would like to access UMASH training materials in English or Spanish regarding needle-stick prevention, visit the UMASH Resource Database. Scroll down through the tags (left side of screen), and click on Needlestick.

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